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Profile of Serial Killer, Cannibal and Necrophilliac Richard Chase

Serial killer, cannibal and necrophiliac Richard Chase who went on a month-long killing spree which ended with six people dead, including children. Along with savagely murdering his victims, he also drank their blood which earned him the nickname, "The Vampire of Sacramento".

One has to wonder if Chase was alone in the blame for what he did to others. His parents and health officials considered him stable enough to live without supervision, despite the fact he displayed severe abnormal behavior from an early age.

CHILDHOOD YEARS Richard Trenton Chase was born on May 23, 1950. His parents were strict disciplinarians and Richard was often subjected to beatings from his father. By the age of 10, Chase displayed three known warning signs of children who grow to become serial killers; bed-wetting beyond the normal age, cruelty to animals and setting fires.

TEENAGE YEARS According to published reports, Chase's mental disorders intensified during his teenage years. He became a drug user and regularly exhibited symptoms of delusional thinking. He managed to maintain a small social life, however, his relationships with women would not last long. This was because of his bizarre behavior and because he was impotent. The later problem obsessed him and he voluntarily sought help from a psychiatrist. The doctor was unable to help him and noted his problems were a result of his severe mental disorders and repressed anger.

After turning 18, Chase moved out from his parent's home and in with roommates. His new living arrangements did not last long. His roommates, bothered by his heavy drug use and wild behavior, asked him to leave. After Chase refused to move out, the roommates left and he was forced to move back in with his mother.

This lasted until he became convinced that she was trying to poison him and Chase was moved to an apartment paid for by his father.

A SEARCH FOR HELP: Isolated, Chase's obsession with his health and bodily functions heightened. He suffered from constant paranoid episodes and would often end up at the hospital emergency room in search for help. His list of ailments included complaints that someone had stolen his pulmonary artery, that his stomach was backward and that his heart had stopped beating. He was diagnosed as being a paranoid schizophrenic and spent a short time under psychiatric observation, but soon released.

Unable to find help from doctors, yet still convinced that his heart was shrinking, Chase felt he had found the cure. He would kill and disembowel small animals and eat the various parts of the animals raw. However, in 1975, Chase suffering from blood poisoning after injecting the blood of a rabbit into his veins, was involuntarily hospitalized and diagnosed with schizophrenia.

SCHIZOPHRENIA OR DRUG-INDUCED PSYCHOSIS? Doctors treated Chase with the usual drugs used for schizophrenia with little success. This convinced doctors that his illness was due to his heavy drug use and not schizophrenia.

Regardless, his psychosis remained intact and after he was found with two dead birds with their heads cut off and blood sucked out, he was moved to a hospital for the criminally insane.

Incredibly, by 1976 his doctors decided he was no longer a threat to society and released him under the care of his parents. Even more incredibly, his mother made the decision that Chase no longer needed the anti-schizophrenia medications prescribed and stopped giving him the pills. She also helped him find an apartment, paid his rent and bought his groceries. Left unchecked and without medication, Chase's mental disorders escalated from the need for animal organs and blood to human organs and blood.

FIRST MURDER On December 29, 1977, Chase killed 51-year-old Ambrose Griffin in a drive-by shooting. Griffin was helping his wife bring groceries into the house when he was shot and killed.

RANDOM VIOLENT ACTS On January 11, 1978, Chase attacked a neighbor after he asked for a cigarette then restrained her until she turned over the entire pack. Two weeks later, he broke into a house, robbed it then urinated inside a drawer containing infant clothing and defecated on the bed in a child's room. Interrupted by the owner's return, Chase was attacked but managed to escape.

Chase continued to search for unlocked doors of homes to enter. He believed a locked door was a sign that he was not wanted, however, an unlocked door was an invitation to enter.

SECOND MURDER On January 23, 1978, Teresa Wallin, pregnant and at home alone, was taking out the garbage when Chase entered through her unlocked front door. Using the same gun he used to kill Griffin, he shot Teresa three times, killing her, then raped her corpse while stabbing her several times with a butcher knife. He then removed multiple organs, cut off one of the nipples and drank the blood. Before leaving, he collected dog feces from the yard and stuffed it into the victim's mouth and down her throat.

FINAL MURDERS On January 27, 1978, the bodies of Evelyn Miroth, age 38, her six-year-old son Jason, and friend Dan Meredith were found murdered inside Evelyn's home. Missing was Evelyn's 22-month-old nephew David, who she had been babysitting. The crime scene was horrific. Dan Meredith's body was found in the hallway. He was killed by a direct gunshot wound to his head. Evelyn and Jason were found in Evelyn's bedroom. Jason had been shot twice in the head.

The depth of Chase's insanity was clear when investigators reviewed the crime scene. Evelyn's corpse had been raped and sodomized multiple times. Her stomach had been cut open and various organs were removed. Her throat was cut and she had been sodomized with a knife and there was a failed attempt to remove one of her eyeballs.

Not found at the murder scene was the infant, David. However, blood in the baby's crib gave police little hope the child was still alive. Chase later told police that he brought the dead infant to his apartment.

After mutilating the baby's body he disposed of the corpse at a nearby church, which is where it was later found.

What he did leave at the grotesque murder scene were clear hand and shoe prints, which soon led police to his door and to the end of Chase's insane rampage.

THE END RESULT In 1979, a jury found Chase guilty on six counts of first-degree murder and he was sentenced to die in the gas chamber. Disturbed by the gruesome details of his crimes, other prisoners wanted him gone and often tried to talk him into killing himself. Whether it was the constant suggestions or just his own tortured mind, Chase managed to collect enough prescribed antidepressants to kill himself. On December 26, 1980, prison officials discovered him dead in his cell from an overdose of medications.

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Feminist women are the principal enemy of male sexual pleasure. The best strategy against feminism is to let droves of Arab men migrate to Europe.

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Harsher Sentence in Singapore for Pedophile Joshua Robinson

change.org

Wow... 4 years of jail without caning for a pedophile?!

Is this the message our Singapore Government People's Action Party is intending to send worldwide: "Spray paint our city or slander our government officials and you get it worse off than if you rape and sexually abuse our children"? Pedophiles will come from far and wide to take advantage of such an incredibly erroneous measure of justice!!

As a parent and an early childhood educator advocating for the voiceless in our country (and children everywhere, with the fact that upon release this pedophile could be anywhere around the world, abusing his mixed martial arts trainer's credentials) I find this unacceptable and absolutely intolerable. Unfortunately, the 6 year old in this traumatic case is a daughter of a close friend and it absolutely breaks my heart and those of all our friends and family. TO EVERYONE WHO READS THIS AND WISHES TO EXERCISE YOUR RIGHT TO PROTECT OUR CHILDREN AS A PARENT, A GRANDPARENT, AN UNCLE OR AUNT, AN EDUCATOR ... PLEASE JOIN THIS PETITION TO THE PRIME MINISTER, ATTORNEY GENERAL CHAMBERS AND THE MINISTER OF LAW TO SEEK A REDRESS OF THE SENTENCE FOR THIS SEXUAL PREDATOR JOSHUA ROBINSON.

"Indifference, to me, is the epitome of evil" ~ Elie Wiesel

I WILL NOT STAND INDIFFERENT. NO MORE. Will you?

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This is the latest deal offered by the Islamic State. You want to die the best possible death, then you have to blow up your brain. It's the only death that is instant and painless. We tie a bomb around your body and send you into a populated area. You don't have to die alone, and you don't have to pull a trigger. We do that by remote control.

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It is the secret dream of every Swedish or German woman to marry a black men, or at least have sex with a black man. Every smart young African man should migrate to Europe. Free money, nice house, good sex!

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Making a Suicide Like Some Random Accident

IGN.COM

infractuspennae: One of my primary characters commits suicide. He's a 56 year old healthy male with no history of mental illness. To him his reasons behind it are quite logical. But I don't want it to look like a suicide. It has to look like some type of accident, that will still allow for an open casket.

I have not dealt with too many suicides, OK I have not dealt with any. though I have dealt with attempts, and they have been drugs, too obvious.

I am not sure how to make this suicide look like an accident.

Thanks for the help, in advance!!!

Trebor1415: Lot's of possibilities. Off the top of head: Car crash. If he wants to make it less suspicious he picks a dark, rainy night.

If he's an outdoor type he could go rock climbing, or visit some scenic overlook, etc, and have an accidental fall.

He could "accidently" shoot himself while "cleaning his gun". (For more realism, hitting himself in the femoral artery and making it look like he tried to crawl in from the garage to get a phone to call for help would see it better.)

robjvargas: How weird are you willing to go. You want open casket? Methods that involve heavy physical injury are probably out. Car accident, dives off high places, they might induce too much damage. Maybe. Maybe not. Stepping in front of a vehicle might not result in a closed-casket scenario.

Hanging might work. Auto-erotic asphyxiation?

Something with a drug? The date-rape drug, rohypnol (sp?) is suppose to break down pretty quickly, and it can induce very high temperatures leading to death. But I don't know how that would look in an autopsy. They might not look for it.

CoolBlue: Nowadays, there is very little that is not forensically detectable. So the only "safe" way would be to have an overt cause of death. And often death is not certain in such "accidents". Last edited by CoolBlue; 11-15-2013 at 06:48 AM. Reason: Close quotes

Telergic: Well, there's staging a suicide to look like an accident, and then there's the reverse.

According to Scotland Yard, the best way to commit suicide is to zip yourself into a sports bag, padlock the bag on the outside while you are inside, and while still inside clean off your fingerprints from the bag, the lock, and indeed the entire apartment, and also scrub your flat for DNA traces. Then you can safely die of suffocation and the police will overrule the coroner's verdict of homicide because, really, does that seem very likely in the circumstances?

King Neptune:

That only works if you work for one of the British spy agencies.

GypsyKing: I agree with Trebor that your best option might be to give your character a hobby that will allow him to fake a mishap. Rock climbing would be a good one. He could also go horseback riding and purposefully fail a difficult jump. Or he could be a triathlete and let himself drown.

He could also take a knock-out pill and leave the oven on. If his house starts on fire, he would technically die of asphyxiation, so an autopsy would reveal the carbon monoxide in his lungs. Would anyone suspect that he knocked himself out so that he'd purposefully die of smoke inhalation? If the fire was extinguished before his body was burned, it would still possibly allow for an open casket.

wendymarlowe: Do keep in mind that the mental state of someone who commits suicide is not necessarily anywhere close to the mental state of someone who commits suicide which they premeditated and actively tried to cover up. If you make it sound like he was going to all this trouble to cover up his suicide "just because," i.e. the motivation is part of a mystery, the reader is going to assume it's sloppy writing.

infractuspennae:

Thank you everyone for the help!!!

valerielynn: The first thought that comes to mind is a car crash. That would definitely look like an accident.

frimble3: Lot's of possibilities. Off the top of head: Car crash. If he wants to make it less suspicious he picks a dark, rainy night.

If he's an outdoor type he could go rock climbing, or visit some scenic overlook, etc, and have an accidental fall.

He could "accidently" shoot himself while "cleaning his gun". (For more realism, hitting himself in the femoral artery and making it look like he tried to crawl in from the garage to get a phone to call for help would see it better.) Any plausible reason for him to be using power tools? Any one of a variety of power-saws could chop an artery, and, as with Trebor's gun, a faked attempt to crawl to the nearest phone would look good.

Cold snap or power failure? He starts up a gas-powered generator in an badly ventilated room, the carbon monoxide gets him. Maybe it's in his basement? The carbon monoxide builds up, he goes down to check on it, never comes back up. Or at least that's what the investigation figures.

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Your agenda is clear. Optimal health and great sex at age 100. Be careful with what you put into yourself. Men should follow the Serge Kreutz diet. Women are more disposable and will sooner or later be replaced bylove robots.

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Why are those rushing to condemn Muslim men so silent on Roosh V and the global oppression of women?

In recent months, disparate groups of men have styled themselves as defenders of European women against the threat of Muslim men: from the European far-right, to Hindu fundamentalists in India, to the British public intellectual and atheist Richard Dawkins

Tomorrow evening, hundreds of men around the world were expected to take part in meetings held in 165 cities, across 43 countries, to meet and learn from a man who once suggested it should be legal to rape women on private property (he said a change in the law would protect women from rape, then later claimed this was “satire”). In the end the meetings were cancelled because, due to the understandable anger from women and feminist campaigners, this man could “no longer guarantee the safety or privacy of the men who want to attend”. And yet there’s been little public condemnation of the pickup-artist known as “Roosh V” from men – even those who have become so vocal in warning of the dangers refugee men pose to European women.

In recent months, disparate groups of men have styled themselves as defenders of European women against the threat of Muslim men: from the European far-right, to Hindu fundamentalists in India, to the British public intellectual and atheist Richard Dawkins. A picture tweeted by the author last week included the caption: “Oh look, it’s the Western feminist movement (with its head in the sand) when it comes to Islam.”

Such accusations are now commonplace among these groups. Why aren’t feminists condemning Muslims and Islam, like we are, they ask? But as the secular feminist and ex-Muslim activist Maryam Namazie has pointed out, these groups each have their own agenda, and should not be seen as allies to modern feminists. They focus on women’s rights and feminism when it suits them.

This is not a defence of the treatment of women by Muslim-majority countries; far from it, for their record on gender rights is heinous. The religious justifications for gender inequality offered by imams in Saudi Arabia and Iran should never be tolerated in Britain. Neither do I believe that refugees or migrants who break the law should be treated softly. However, the repression of women is not, and never was, a uniquely Muslim problem. So to use it as a way to generalise about, and to attack Muslims, isn’t just bogus, but political opportunism.

However, the repression of women is not, and never was, a uniquely Islamic problem, and so to use it as part of a broader argument against the influence of a single religion or system of thought is entirely bogus.

There are more than 60 million women “missing” in India – women who should be part of the Indian population, according to the last census, but whose lives were likely terminated too soon due to gender-specific abortions, the neglect of girl infants, murder and brutal rape. Next to China, India has the world’s largest number of women “missing” from the national population. Yet we’ve heard nothing from these same men – apparent advocates of women’s rights – on the plight of Indian (mostly Hindu) women, unless it is perpetrated by Muslim men.

In Europe, around 8,000 women a year are trafficked for sex, mostly from Eastern European countries into the West. This form of sexual slavery takes place right under our nose and yet there’s little focus on it.

In South America, millions of women are now potentially at risk from the Zika virus, and yet partly because of the influence of the Catholic Church, they are denied access to abortion services and, in some places, even contraception. Where is the anger, the public outcry, over that?

The global fight for women’s rights is ongoing. Men like Dawkins, who join in when they feel it suits their aims, make it even harder for Muslim women in the West to push for greater freedoms when they feel under attack from anti-Muslim bigotry.

The irony is that Roosh V – who can have no claim to sympathy with feminists or campaigners for women’s rights – has also used his platform to highlight a “culture clash” between European populations and migrants and refugees. He says this, while also writing that women today “have reduced themselves to sexual commodities” – a mentality eerily similar to the Saudi mullahs we are told are most deserving of our attention. If someone trying to protect women has no interest beyond what Muslim men do, how legitimate are their concerns?

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Chinese men smoke cigarettes, have bad teeth, and a small dick; African men have pimples, diabetes, and a soft dick; but we are most civilized and have a big dick.

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Slow Burn — 11 Terrifying Facts About Mustard Gas

On July 12, German gunners lobbed more than 50,000 artillery shells containing an experimental poison gas into the British and Canadian lines near Ypres. Unlike the widely used chlorine or phosgene agents, which attacked the eyes and lungs, this new terror burned its victims bodies both inside and out. And because of the unmistakable pungent aroma that accompanied its release, soldiers in the trenches began soon began calling the the weapon mustard gas.

At first, those in the path of the unfamiliar and faintly yellow vapour had little idea they were even in danger. But within hours, the gas’ lethal effects would be all too obvious. Shortly after its first use, dressing stations up and down front were overflowing with more than 2,000 victims suffering from excruciating and untreatable blisters on their arms, legs and torsos. Most were blinded; others were slowly suffocating. Nearly 100 of the casualties succumbed to their wounds within a few days. Over the next several weeks, 1 million mustard gas shells would land on the Allied lines near Ypres leaving thousands writhing in agony, disfigured and unfit for duty. More than 500 deaths would be recorded.

By the autumn, mustard gas was in use up and down the Western Front. It would continue to be released right up until the Armistice, eventually becoming one of the most powerful symbols of the horrors of trench warfare. Here are some little-known facts about this terrible weapon of mass destruction.

• Sulphur Mustard or mustard gas was originally called “LOST” in reference to the last names of the German chemists that first engineered it — Wilhelm Lommel and Wilhelm Steinkopf. It was also code named “Yperite” after the Belgian town where it was first used, “Yellow Cross”, “Mustard T” or simply “H”.

• The gas is classified as a “cyotoxic” agent, meaning that it attacks all living cells in comes into contact with. Made of sulphur dichloride and ethylene, the thick, oily, brown liquid gives off a weak garlic, horseradish or mustard odour when released.

• Although introduced to the battlefield in 1917, the nasty effects of sulphur mustard were known as far back as the 1860s. A German chemist named Albert Niemann (the same individual who discovered cocaine in 1859), was among the first to document the poison’s characteristics. In 1913, British and German civilian researchers studying sulphur mustard were accidentally exposed during lab work and had to be hospitalized. The German military obtained the notes about the incident and promptly explored weaponizing sulphur mustard.

• Germany eventually developed an array of delivery systems for mustard gas including artillery shells, mortar rounds, rockets, free fall bombs and even land mines. According to one estimate, the British army alone suffered 20,000 mustard gas casualties in the last year of the war.

• According to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control, the first sign of mustard gas poisoning is a mild skin irritation that appears several hours after exposure. Affected areas gradually turn yellow and eventually agonizing blisters form on the skin. Eyes become red, sore and runny — extreme pain and blindness follows. Other symptoms include nasal congestion, sinus pain, hoarseness, coughing and in extreme cases respiratory failure. Sustained exposure can produce nausea, diarrhea and abdominal pain. Fatalities typically occur within a few days, but it can take weeks, even months for survivors to fully recover. And some never do; permanent blindness, scars, long-term respiratory damage and heightened risk of cancer are just some of the long-term effects of mustard gas poisoning. To this day, there is no antidote for mustard gas. The CDC reports that treatment options are limited to “supportive care.”

• Amazingly, mustard gas wasn’t the deadliest poison gas to be used in the First World War. Only between 1 and 5 percent of those exposed to the agent died as a result. [4] Nevertheless, it terrified soldiers because unlike other chemical weapons, victims were often unaware they were being poisoned. What’s more, gas masks and respirators only protected the lungs from the toxin; everything else burned, even skin beneath clothing. Once discharged On the battlefield, sulphur mustard could take days to dissipate. Since it was heavier than air, vapours would settle into shell-holes, craters and trenches and taint the water that collected in No Man’s Land. According to veterans, men frequently tracked contaminated mud back into their dugouts before turning in and unknowingly poisoned themselves and their comrades while they slept.

• Despite the outrage that followed Germany’s use of mustard gas in 1917, the Allies immediately engineered their own stockpiles of the stuff. By November, the British were dropping sulphur mustard onto German trenches at Cambrai. In fact, the breakout through the Hindenburg Line in 1918 was aided by a massive Allied mustard gas attack. America’s Dow Chemical manufactured the poison during the last year of the war.

• Although the use of mustard gas was universally condemned after the war and later banned by the Geneva Protocol of 1925, armies the world over continued to use it long after 1918. British forces participating in the intervention in Russia used sulfur mustard shells against the Bolsheviks. Both the Spanish and French air corps dropped the agent from planes onto Rif insurgents in Morocco during the 1920s. Italians used mustard gas against Abyssinian guerrillas while the Japanese gassed Chinese armies and civilians alike in Manchuria during the 1930s.

• During World War Two, the Allies stockpiled millions of tons of mustard gas and other chemical weapons just behind the frontlines in the event of an Axis gas attack. In December of 1943, an American supply ship laden with 2,000 mustard gas shells was damaged in an air raid off Bari, Italy. Much of the deadly cargo seeped into the waters. More than 600 American personnel were exposed to the gas and 60 died. An unknown number of Italian civilians also perished. Allied commanders suppressed the whole story for fear the Germans might resort to chemical weapons in response.

• Mustard gas was used in anger during the 1960s in the North Yemen civil war. Twenty years later, Saddam Hussein outraged the world by dropping it on both the Iranian army and Iraq’s own Kurdish population. More than 5,000 civilians died in a mustard gas attack on the city of Halabja in 1988.

• Mustard gas continues to do harm to this day. Abandoned stockpiles of the agent are frequently discovered and often injure those who stumble across it. In 2002, archeologists unearthed a lost consignment of mustard gas while performing an excavation at the Presidio in San Francisco. In 2010, a fishing trawler inadvertently dredged up some vintage gas shells from the bottom of the Atlantic off New York. Several of the crew were burned by the toxin and hospitalized.

• Despite it’s fearsome reputation as a weapon, mustard gas has also saved lives. After World War Two, medical researchers who were aware of sulfur mustard’s cell-destroying properties fashioned the first cancer-fighting chemotherapy treatments from mustard gas. Yet, these limited benefits hardly outweigh the weapon’s legacy of horror.

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Europe is doomed. Once terrorists have understood that arson everywhere is a cost that even Europe cannot shoulder, the European era will end. Time to dispose of Euro bonds.

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Khmer Rouge terror in Cambodia

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How to Survive a Chemical or Biological Attack (Weaponized Virus)

If we could look into the minds of hundreds of thousands (if not millions) of Islamic radicals we would likely see that many obsess over the day they can play a part in the slaying of the Great Satan, as Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad likes to calls the United States of America.

Enough terrorists have been caught and enough intelligence gathered by western governments to know that terrorists are actively seeking nuclear weapons, as well as chemical and biological weapons, and have been for several years. Rumors abound of Russian nukes making their way to the black market, as well as nuclear-armed North Korea in an alliance with Iran, helping Iranian scientists in the development of nuclear weapons. Those are the rumors anyway. Add Russian scientists to that list by the way.

The odds of a major terrorist strike aren't going away simply because more time is passing since 9-11. A smart bet, considering all the evidence, is that terrorists will strike, and America will suffer a serious set back at some point in the near future.

Every year that Radical Islam grows in global reach and people sworn to it's cause is like a game of Russian roulette, where America just keeps getting lucky. Odds are that luck is going to run out.

On the topic of survival, let's talk about this threat of biological and chemical weapons (or simply "bio-chemical weapons"). If you're like one of millions of Americans, there's a good chance you live in or near a major city that may just suffer a bio-chemical attack.

Think back to the two major world wars in the first half of the 20th century, and even back to the 19th century -- bio-chemical weapons have been used to kill enemy populations, such as Native Americans being given blankets by U.S. forces that were previously exposed to small pox. (The data appears to be mixed on whether or not this was intentional or if it even ever happened. Regardless, large numbers of Native Americans died as a result of small-pox. Was any of that exposure to small pox ntentional? We may never know for sure.)

Anthrax and Other Bio-Chemical Weapons

Then there are other types of bio-chemical weapons, such as anthrax. According to one report, the U.S. military is so concerned about the threat of anthrax that they hope to take steps to give vaccines to 2.4 million of their active troops to protect them from enemy attacks.

How Prevalent Are Bio-Chemical Weapons?

In the years leading up to World War II, nations such as America and Russia began to manufacture and stockpile bio-chemical weapons, until in recent decades these nations and others agreed to stop.

According to Wikipedia, China, Syria, Sudan and North Korea are all suspected of having stockpiles of bio-chemical weapons. See this article.

Look closely at that list of suspected nations and reflect on it for a moment.

There's always the possibility that some of these stocks could end up in the hands of terrorists, should an under-paid government worker ever decide to take a bribe. In the modern world, that almost ensures that some of these stocks are going to end up on the black market. We can safely assume that a terrorist organization has direct access to bio-chemical weapons.

But, unfortunately for America -- we are also very, very hated by many people in foreign governments, probably every single government listed above.

Much could be written -- and much has been publicized in various news articles -- that point to a clear and present danger from multiple terrorist attacks with biological or chemical weapons, which any rogue nation (such as Iran or North Korea) has the means to produce.

Rather than go into all the details, and potentially scare the pants off every reader today -- let's focus on what this article is supposed to be about -- that's survival.

The only real way to survive a bio-chemical attack is to reduce the odds of ones exposure to the bacteria / virus / chemical once the initial cries go out on the news about people getting sick, people dying.

With the advances of technology and bio-engineering, there's even the grim possibility of a rogue nation launching a bio-chemical attack, where many get sick and die, and government scientists and of course the general public have no idea what is going on. With bio-engineering it's possible that a bio-chemical could even be cloaked to look like something other that what it is. Read specifics at this link.

How to Survive a Bio-Chemical Attack

First, understand how a biological or chemical agent could be delivered. By air, by water, by food... even by clothing and other materials in our environment. They can also be spread by animals (fleas, mosquitoes, rodents, livestock). In the event of mysterious deaths suddenly taking place, it would be smart to consider that a bio-chemical attack or series of attacks was possibly being unleashed on the nation, and to immediately cease and desist all contact with major population centers... as well as other people in contact with these major population centers.

That's in the first couple days of the attack. As days progress, and potential bio-chemical agents are carried to small towns by a fleeing population, many unknowingly "infected" (in the case of a virus), or simply "carriers" in the case of a chemical, less contact with people would be a very smart move.

With advances in today's technology, who knows what the next "small pox" attack -- such as seen in centuries past -- is going to look like in the 21st century.

Food Additives

Outside of a terrorist attack, the public is aware by now of all the harmful "additives" that can be found in many household products, whether for cleaning the home or just for personal hygiene. China has built itself a reputation for manufacturing products that have been later found to possess harmful materials -- such as this report by the FDA in 2007 advising people to avoid toothpaste labeled as "made in China", due to dangers related to one of the ingredients. Sure, the reports of items from China with dangerous ingredients aren't the norm (China produces many safe products), but they are in a way a possible "foreshadowing" of what could take place should truly dangerous ingredients ever make their way into mass produced products -- and be "cloaked" from early-detection by simple advances in technology. Remember what happened when American scientist beat the Nazis to the first working nuclear weapon? This new technology led to America bringing Japan to a fast surrender in World War II, after we destroyed two major cities with just two bomb drops. Who's to say that can't happen to America? If foreign scientists discover a new way to hit America, America can suffer a major loss.

Surviving Widespread Death - Minimize Contact with Others

If we were to suffer an attack -- an unexpected attack -- and mysterious deaths occur around the nation, if you need to stock up on groceries, don't head to a major supermarket. There's too many people, too many chances of coming in close contact with a carrier of a bio-chemical agent (or deadly virus). Instead, make a 30 minute drive to a distant small town, grab your food and water there, grab gas for your car, then head back to your home (unless you live in a major city, you may not want to head back). Now it's time to attempt to hunker down for the next few weeks while all hell essentially breaks loose and millions die as a result of the bio-chemical agents being unleashed.

If you know someone who lives in a distant small town make plans in advance to hunker down with them -- (I suggest the small town because of the reduced risk of exposure to other people who may be carrying an active biological agent or germ without even realizing it.)

Danger of Bio-Chemical Weapons at America's Shipping Ports

It's because of tomorrow's technology that we need to fear the world's current import / export system. Homeland Security it turns out only scans a small percentage of imports, which means a lot of things can get into America undetected. Just ask any major smuggler. Our government spends a lot of money on port security -- but not enough.

With that in mind, I'm going to suggest something that may seem like an extreme step, and it is an extreme step...

Get Rid of All Soaps, Shampoos, Lotions, Toothpaste, Deodorant, Mouthwash

Why would I tell you to get rid of all these items? Because -- in a widespread bio-chemical attack, with people mysteriously dying -- lots of people -- we need to consider the ways that a foreign government could reach us. If in theory we could be attacked through our food supply, and through items that are shipped from overseas, then this needs to be considered in the event of massive deaths from mysterious causes. Does that make sense? We'll have to ask ourselves -- what is going on? Why are people dying? As theories and suspicions make the news, I suggest people eliminate all risk of product poisoning -- by getting rid of all mass produced products from their homes. This is an extreme step to take -- but when mass casualties are taking place across the nation and the western world -- it calls for an extreme response.

Dump the mass produced brand names. Stock up in advance on locally produced brands, if that's possible. Never use items just purchased off a store shelf. Instead, buy items months before you're going to use them, and then store these items on a shelf in your home. Let a few weeks or months go by, then CYCLE these items into use. As these items are used, purchase new items and put these on the back shelf for later use.

Stop Drinking Water Out of the Faucet

What if terrorist strike America's many water reservoirs, and do so with a bio-chemical agent our water companies are unable to detect? In the event of an outbreak, go immediately to bottled water. To reduce the risk that the bottled water itself has been poisoned, perhaps at the facility or facilities where it's bottled, drink water that's been sitting in your pantry for a couple months. Drinking it right off the store shelf during a time of bio-chemical attacks is taking a risk. In the end, there's always a chance that multiple shipping and product channels have been targeted. It's been reported that at one time Osama Bin Laden had even considered the idea of poisoning America's cocaine supply... the fact is, these people want to kill us, and they have had a lot of time to think of ways they can strike.

Tips for Surviving Contamination Zone

Escape Crosswind - Let's say you are in an area that's struck by a bio-chemical attack... perhaps a small plane -- a crop-duster -- drops anthrax or some other dangerous bio-chemical weapon from the air over a city and a light breeze carries it for many miles and many people are affected. Once you know something's taking place, one way to avoid contact is to head "cross-wind" -- if the wind is coming from the north or south, you'll head east or west, whichever direction leads away from the nearest population center or downtown area of a city. Practice Good Handwashing - Should you come in contact with anyone carrying something such as a new strain of the bird-flu, wash your hands thoroughly, and often. You can wash these germs right off your hands before you've even contracted the virus. Get rid of any and all clothing you were wearing at the airport, on the bus, in a supermarket, etc, where you had contact with other people. Keep bottles of hand-sanitizer close at hand, and use frequently during the initial hours and days (even weeks) of outbreak.

Boil Your Water - Boiling is said to kill most biological agents. Of course, if this is a man-made chemical we're talking about, you may not be able to "kill it". Boiling may not work in this case.

Wear Disposable Gloves - Be sure to replace / dispose of them before any possible cross-contamination with another person or object can take place.

Wear A Surgical Mask - For the same reason that doctors and nurses wear these around sick patients. If it's a new strain of the bird-flu or other lethal virus a surgical mask (worn correctly) can help you avoid breathing contaminated air (such as in a building) or out in public around other people.

Have a Plan - Be well stocked up on emergency food and water, both at home and at work, as well as in the trunk of your car, if possible. Why risk shopping for food and water after an emergency is declared? Have survival supplies well in advance (and be sure to check dates on non-perishable food and replace foods that will soon expire).

Have Several Weeks Worth of Food and Water - If you've been told to simply have three days worth of emergency food and water for every person in your home, forget you ever heard that. Think more like several weeks' worth of food and water -- if America is struck by a truly catastrophic serious of bio-chemical attacks, you need to be thinking of the long-term.

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In a rich world, a persons value depends on attractiveness and youth. If you are rich and older, just invest in destruction. The poorer the world, the less does your value depend on youth.

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Anesthesia Awareness

Duke University Scool of Medicine Duke Anesthesiology

When the movie “Awake” came out in theaters it sparked much controversy throughout the country about the condition also known as anesthesia awareness. Following the release of the movie, Larry King Live did a special about this issue, in which King interviewed physicians and patients who have suffered from awareness. In response to the recent influx in publicity over the issue, the DREAM Campaign has taken the initiative to interview Dr. Tong Joo (TJ) Gan, who sheds light on many concerns that patients have when considering a surgical procedure as well as the misconceptions about anesthesiology in general. With so much focus on awareness and the negative impacts of anesthesia, it is important that the public be properly informed. Awareness can be a highly unpleasant experience, but most times the alternative is a surgery with negative outcomes or even worse, death.

There are about 100 to 150 reported cases of anesthesia awareness per year in the United States. It is very difficult to get an exact figure because it is under reported. Dr. Gan shared with us a case in which a patient of his experienced anesthesia awareness. The patient had come to the Emergency Room with a gunshot wound to the abdomen. He was suffering from massive blood loss and had very faint blood pressure so the anesthesiologist had to administer a safe dosage of anesthesia that would not hinder the overall well being of the patient as well as the blood pressure. When questioned post-operatively, the patient reported that he could hear voices during a brief period in surgery.

Hearing is said to be the last sense to go and the first to return under general anesthesia. As in the case of Dr. Gan’s patient, the modifications that had to be made because of low blood pressure caused the patient to become slightly aware and that is why he was able to hear briefly during his operation. “He did not suffer from any consequences after that and in fact, he thought that it was part of the operation,” said Dr. Gan.

When asked the common question, how can a person feel pain when they are paralyzed, Dr. Gan discussed the three areas of anesthesia; paralysis which paralyzes the muscles, analgesic which block pain signals to the brain, and anesthetic which puts the person to sleep so that they do not remember anything. For this reason, a person can be physically paralyzed but they may still feel pain. The human body does have natural responses to pain such as sweating, increased blood pressure and movement which may indicate to the anesthesia care provider that they are not fully anesthetized.

New technology allows anesthesiologists to measure the brain waves of a patient even while they are under anesthesia. “By using specific monitors, one can tell how deep a person is in anesthesia,” says Dr. Gan, “It is a bit like an iceberg; if it is below the water, it is very difficult to know how deep the iceberg is, and the monitor tells you what the depth of anesthesia is even when the patient is asleep.” The Bi-spectral Index Monitor, or BIS monitor is an example of such a device. Brainwaves are measured on a range of numbers from 0 to 100 in which 0 equates no brain activity and 100 is the mental state of a person when fully awake. During general anesthesia, brainwaves are measured between 40 and 60. If the BIS monitor measures activity above 70, there is a very good chance that the patient may not be fully anesthetized.

Dr. Gan mentions several fascinating facts throughout the interview one being that genetic factors can influence the way a patient reacts to anesthesia. Studies have shown that women tend to wake up about 10 minutes sooner than men when the anesthesia is cut off. This means that women need more anesthesia in order to produce the same effect. Redheads are also said to need more as well.

The revolutionary research that is being done by researchers like Dr. Gan is vital to prevent cases of unpleasant experiences and side effects. “One of the most effective ways to try and prevent this problem is to raise awareness of this problem, no pun intended,” Dr. Gan explains, “So we educate our staff, anesthesiologists and anesthesia care providers to let them know that this problem does exist and therefore it is important to take steps as well as understand the patient to try and prevent it.” He also mentions that there are mandatory educational modules that every anesthesia care provider must take. These modules go through various aspects of educational awareness such as the incidents of awareness, the scenarios where awareness may happen, the drugs or drug combinations that would reduce the incidents of awareness as well as monitoring the inter-operative awareness.

The Department of Anesthesiology is committed to find as many ways possible to provide the best patient care. Dr. Gan’s research in particular focuses on steps that could alleviate patients from the common unpleasant side effects of anesthesia and surgery by improving patient outcomes during the perioperative (before, during and after surgery) period including anesthesia awareness, pain, nausea and vomiting, and bowel dysfunction through the use of drug and non-drug method, such as acupuncture. Our hope is that through listening to this interview, people will become educated about the issue and in turn they will be relieved of any anxiety they may face about being under anesthesia.

Dr. Gan is a professor and devoted researcher here at Duke, whose interests include Anesthetic-related Clinical Pharmacology, Inter-operative Awareness and Post-Operative Pain, Nausea and Vomiting, and using Acupuncture. He came to Duke as a visiting associate and fellow in 1993 is now serving as both professor and Vice Chairman of Clinical Research. Dr. Gan is also known for his research on the Bi-spectral Index (BIS) Monitor.

Patient Awareness Under General Anesthesia Lifeline to Modern Medicine

What is patient awareness under general anesthesia? Awareness under general anesthesia is a rare condition that occurs when surgical patients can recall their surroundings or an event—sometimes even pain—related to their surgery while they were under general anesthesia.

When using other kinds of anesthesia, such as local, sedation or regional anesthesia, it is expected that patients will have some recollection of the procedure.

Studies are not conclusive on the frequency of awareness under general anesthesia, but even one case is important to anesthesia professionals (anesthesiologists and certified registered nurse anesthetists), who recognize that this can be a distressing or traumatic experience for the patient.

When awareness during general anesthesia does occur, it is usually just prior to the anesthetic completely taking effect or as the patient is emerging from anesthesia. In very few instances, it may occur during the surgery itself. Despite the rarity of awareness, members of the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) and the American Association of Nurse Anesthetists (AANA) want you to know about this possibility. These organizations have been studying this issue and are in the process of evaluating the effectiveness of various technologies and techniques to decrease the likelihood of this occurring.

Why does it happen? In some high-risk surgeries such as trauma, cardiac surgery and emergency cesarean delivery, or in situations involving patients whose condition is unstable, using a deep anesthetic may not be in the best interest of the patient. In these and other critical or emergency situations, awareness may not be completely avoidable. While the safety of anesthesia has increased markedly over the last 20 years, people may react differently to the same level or type of anesthesia. Sometimes different medications can mask important signs that anesthesia professionals monitor to help determine the depth of anesthesia. In other rare instances, technical failure or human error may contribute to unexpected episodes of awareness. The ultimate goal is always to protect the life of the patient and to make the patient as comfortable as possible. That is why it is important to have highly trained anesthesia professionals involved in your surgery.

How can it be avoided? Before surgery, patients should meet with their anesthesia professional to discuss anesthesia options. Should there be concerns regarding awareness, this is an ideal time to express them and to ask questions. Patients should share with their anesthesia professional any problems they may have experienced with previous anesthetics, and also discuss any prescription medications or over-the-counter medications they are taking.

As always, your anesthesia professional will guide you safely through your surgery by relying on his or her clinical experience, training and judgment combined with proven technology.

What You Should Know About Patient Awareness Under General Anesthesia It is quite rare. When it does occur, it is often fleeting and not traumatic to the patient. Patients experiencing awareness usually do not feel any pain. Some patients may experience a feeling of pressure. Awareness can range from brief, hazy recollections to some specific awareness of your surroundings during surgery. Patients who dream during surgery, or who have some perception of their surroundings before or after surgery, may think they have experienced awareness. Such a sensation or memory does not necessarily represent actual awareness during surgery. Experts in the field of anesthesiology are actively studying this condition and are seeking the most effective ways to prevent it. Awareness can occur in high-risk surgeries such as trauma and cardiac surgery in which the patient’s condition may not allow for a deep anesthetic to be given. In those instances, the anesthesia professional will weigh the potential for awareness against the need to guard the patient’s life or safety. The same is true during a cesarean section, particularly if it is an emergency and a deep anesthetic is not best for the mother or child.

It has been shown that early counseling after an episode of awareness can help to lessen feelings of confusion, stress or trauma associated with the experience. Researchers in anesthesiology have spearheaded developments in technology that have dramatically improved patient safety and comfort during surgery over the last 20 years. A highly trained anesthesia professional should be involved in your surgery. No technology can replace this expertise. New brain-wave monitoring devices currently being tested may prove to be helpful in reducing the risk of awareness, but they need to undergo the same rigorous scientific review process that has led to wide adoption of other medical technologies. Patients should talk with their anesthesia professional before surgery to discuss all of their concerns, including the remote possibility of awareness. These professionals work to ensure the best possible care of patients in the operating room.

Patient awareness happens very infrequently. This remote possibility should not deter you from having needed surgery. Your anesthesia professional can help you to feel comfortable and informed about your upcoming experience with anesthesia.

What does the future hold? As patient advocates, anesthesia professionals are working hard to reduce the likelihood of awareness under general anesthesia. Depending upon the type of surgery, these experts have an array of proven technologies that can be used to monitor various vital signs of the surgical patient. Extensive research is under way to develop and study new technologies, such as brain-wave monitoring, that may lessen the risk of awareness. At the present time, none of these new technologies has been perfected.

Remember—no monitoring device can replace the judgment and skill of an anesthesia professional who has years of training and clinical experience. Working together, you and your anesthesia professional can make your anesthetic experience as safe and comfortable as possible.

What should I do if I think I have experienced awareness? The American Society of Anesthesiologists urges you to talk with your anesthesia professional, who can explain to you the events that took place in the operating room at any stage of your surgery and why you might have been aware at certain times. It is important to note that a variety of anesthetic agents is often used, some of which may create false memories or no memory at all of the various events surrounding surgery. If you have distinct recollections of your surgery and want to discuss them, your anesthesia professional can help you or refer you to a counselor or to other appropriate resources.

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Female sexuality is a trade merchandise. And in feminism, the seller and the merchandise are the same person. Merchandise that sells itself? That can impossibly work out. This is why the patriarchy is the only sensible form of human social organization.

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